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Session 1a Session 1b
Session 2a Session 2b
Session 3a Session 3b
Session 4a Session 4b
Session 5a Session 5b
Session 6a Session 6b
Session 7a Session 7b
Session 8a Session 8b
Session 9a Session 9b
Session 10a Session 10b
Session 11a Session 11b
Session 12a Session 12b
Bible Books Summary

Session 2: Section 2

The Old Testament is the foundation of the New Testament

The New Testament is full of references and allusions to the Old Testament. We cannot hope to understand the New Testament without knowing about its Old Testament foundation. In this section, we will look at this concept.

The Old Testament background to the life of Christ

Open Bible – please click here to view the references Look at the following sections and see how they are telling us that the life of Jesus must be understood with the Old Testament in mind.
Matthew 5 v 17 and 18
John 1 v 45

There are many places where the Old Testament is referred to in the Gospels.
 

Open Bible – please click here to view the references
Have a look at these verses:
Matthew 2 v 3 to 6, 3 v 1 to 3
Mark 12 v 1 to 11, 15 v 27 to 28
John 12 v 37 to 41, 19 v 23 to 24, 32 to 37

After his death and resurrection, Jesus made it very clear that we must read the Old Testament to understand what his own lifeís work was all about.
 

Open Bible – please click here to view the references
Read Luke 24 v 13 to 47

Notice the following:
 
Verse 25
"O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken!".
Verse 27
"And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself".
Verse 32
"Did not our heart burn within us while he talked with us on the road, and while he opened the Scriptures to us?".
Verse 44
"These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning me".

Verse 44 very clearly tells us to look for allusions to Christ in the Law of Moses (Genesis to Deuteronomy), the prophets (Isaiah to Malachi) and the Psalms. So when reading all of these books we should look for "echoes" of the life and work of Jesus. We saw in Session 1, Section 2 how Isaiah 53 looks forward to Christ.

Verse 45
"He opened their understanding, that they might comprehend the Scriptures".


The Old Testament as used by first-century believers

The record of the Acts of the Apostles tells us that the first–century believers used the Old Testament extensively when giving people their message. Letís look at just one of the speeches made in Acts:
 
Open Bible – please click here to view the references
Read Acts 2

Verses 17 to 21 is are quotation from Joel 2 v 28 to 32

Verses 25 to 28 are a quotation from Psalm 16 v 8 to 11

Verse 30 is a reference to Psalm 132 v 11

Verse 31 refers to Psalm 16 v 10

Verses 34 and 35 are a quotation from Psalm 110 v 1.

The same happens in the speeches recorded in chapters 3, 4, 7 and 13

Summary

  • The Old Testament is the foundation for the New Testament.
  • Look for "echoes" of the Old Testament in the New Testament.
  • Look for allusions to the Old Testament in the New Testament.

Optional Assignment 2

Look at the speeches we have already mentioned in Acts chapters 3, 4, 7 and 13. As you read the verses we have noted in the list below have a look at the corresponding Old Testament references and see how they are being quoted.
 
Reference in Acts Old Testament Reference
3 v 22 and 23 Deuteronomy 18 v 15, 18, 19
3 v 25 Genesis 22 v 18
4 v 11 Psalm 118 v 22
4 v 25 and 26 Psalm 2 v 1 and 2
7 v 3 Genesis 12 v 1
7 v 5 Genesis 12 v 7, 13 v 15
7 v 6 Genesis 15 v 13 and 14
7 v 27 and 28 Exodus 2 v 13 and 14
7 v 32 Exodus 3 v 6
7 v 33 and 34 Exodus 3 v 1 to 10
7 v 37 Deuteronomy 18 v 15
7 v 40 Exodus 32 v 1 and 23
7 v 42 and 43 Amos 5 v 25 to 27
7 v 44 Exodus 25 v 40
7 v 49 and 50 Isaiah 66 v 1 and 2
13 v 22 1 Samuel 13 v 14
13 v 33 Psalm 2 v 7
13 v 34 Isaiah 55 v 3
13 v 35 Psalm 16 v 10
13 v 41 Habakkuk 1 v 5
13 v 47 Isaiah 49 v 6
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